It’s no secret–SSL is confusing. Creating and signing certificates is a convoluted process, especially from the command line. Fortunately, Debian-based systems have an easy way for Apache users to create, sign, and install their own SSL certs. This tutorial assumes that Apache is already installed with the default configuration.

### Configure SSL ###

Step one is to configure Apache to enable `mod_ssl`:

# a2enmod ssl Enabling module ssl. See /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/README.Debian.gz on how to configure SSL and create self-signed certificates. Run ‘/etc/init.d/apache2 restart’ to activate new configuration!

The documentation referred to by that script’s output explains that, on Debian systems, an SSL certificate is installed automatically when the `ssl-cert` package is installed. It also outlines the process of creating a new certificate (useful when usen name-based virtual hosts). From the manual:

If you install the ssl-cert package, a self-signed certificate will be automatically created using the hostname currently configured on your computer. You can recreate that certificate (e.g. after you have changed /etc/hosts or DNS to give the correct hostname) as user root with:

make-ssl-cert generate-default-snakeoil –force-overwrite

To create more certificates with different host names, you can use

make-ssl-cert /usr/share/ssl-cert/ssleay.cnf /path/to/cert-file.crt

This will ask you for the hostname and place both SSL key and certificate in the file /path/to/cert-file.crt . Use this file with the SSLCertificateFile directive in the Apache config (you don’t need the SSLCertificateKeyFile in this case as it also contains the key). The file /path/to/cert-file.crt should only be readable by root. A good directory to use for the additional certificates/keys is /etc/ssl/private .

So, let’s create a new virtual host–one which can only be accessed via SSL.

Use the syntax from the manual to create a new certificate:

# make-ssl-cert /usr/share/ssl-cert/ssleay.cnf /etc/ssl/private/securehost.crt

When prompted, enter a hostname for the virtual host. For this example, the hostname is `securehost`.

### Create the Virtual Host ###

Once SSL is configured, it’s time to create the virtual host which will be accessed via SSL. Create the file */etc/apache2/sites-available/securehost* containing the following:

SSLEngine on SSLCertificateFile /etc/ssl/private/securehost.crt

The above example assumes knowledge on how to configure a virtual host. Much of the necessary configuration has been omitted and replaced with an ellipsis.

It may be desirable to redirect port 80 traffic addressed to this hostname so that visitors do not have to explicitly designate the `https://` protocol. To do this, rename the virtual host file you just created to *securehost-ssl*, then create a new file called *securehost* containing the following:

<VirtualHost *:80> Redirect / https://phpmyadmin/

### Configure Apache ###

All that’s left is to configure apache to recognize the new virtual hosts. The first step is to enable them:

# a2ensite securehost securehost-ssl Enabling site securehost. Enabling site securehost-ssl. Run ‘/etc/init.d/apache2 reload’ to activate new configuration!

Before reloading Apache, it may be necessary to enable name-based virtual hosting for ports 80 and 443. In Debian, this is done in the file */etc/apache2/ports.conf*. Look for the lines that say `Listen 80` and `Listen 443`. Add the following options:

NameVirtualHost *:80 Listen 80

Finally, reload Apache to reflect the new configuration:

# service apache2 reload

### Try It ###

Now try navigating to https://securehost. This will most likely result in a certificate warning, which can be ignored/bypassed. Assuming that the document root contains an index page, it should be displayed here.

Once successful, try removing the **s** in the protocol to test the redirection from port 80. If redirection is working properly, the location bar in the browser should update to include the **s** again and the index page should again be displayed.

### Other Tips ###

It is possible for the same hostname to serve completely different sites based on the port specified. For example, a corporate site may display generic marketing info for visitors to port 80, but employees know that they need to use `https://` to access the login area. This keeps visitors from being presented with irrelevant employee prompts, and ensures that all employees are logging in securely.